Taino Resource List

Mabrika! Here you will find several sections concerning human rights and the rights of Indigenous people (UNDRIP), tools for understanding those rights, and supporting organizations. There are also sections on intersectional Afro-Indigenous identities; the Carlisle Indian School; decolonization & human rights; the connection between missing and murdered Indigenous women to fossil fuel extraction; repatriation and objects; continuity and mtDNA studies.

UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People

The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) was adopted by the General Assembly on Thursday, 13 September 2007, by a majority of 144 states in favour, 4 votes against (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States) and 11 abstentions (Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Colombia, Georgia, Kenya, Nigeria, Russian Federation, Samoa and Ukraine).Click here to view the voting record.

Years later the four countries that voted against have reversed their position and now support the UN Declaration. Today the Declaration is the most comprehensive international instrument on the rights of indigenous peoples. It establishes a universal framework of minimum standards for the survival, dignity and well-being of the indigenous peoples of the world and it elaborates on existing human rights standards and fundamental freedoms as they apply to the specific situation of indigenous peoples….”


Text in English


Texto en Espanol


International Indian Treaty Council


Webinar Training Materials & Documents

Yanapaq.info: Where we the indigenous people learn about our rights


Indigenous Navigator

The Indigenous Navigator is a framework and set of tools for and by indigenous people to systematically monitor the level of recognition and implementation of their rights. By using the Indigenous Navigator, indigenous organizations and communities, duty bearers, NGOs and journalists can access free tools and resources based on community-generated data. In French/English/Spanish


FIMI-IIWF – International Indigenous Women’s Forum (FIMI)

A global network that unites indigenous women from the seven sociocultural regions. We are focused on political advocacy, training and leadership development. French/English/Spanish


First Meeting of the International Indigenous Peoples Forum on Food Sovereignty

Second World Conference of Indigenous Women – August- Sept 2021

The 2WCIW will be held in virtual format every Thursday in August, with two sessions per day to facilitate the participation of all regions. It will begin on August 12, and will end on September 2 with the adoption of the Global Political Declaration.August 12th, 19th, 26th – 8:00 am – 12:00 pm (PERU) | 9:00 pm – 1:00 am (PERU)September 2 – 2021 7:00 am – 10:00 am (PERU)


Taino Organizations

United Confederation of Taino People //Confederacion Unida de el Pueblo Taino [CUPT]


Higuayagua: Taino of the Caribbean


Concilio Guatu-Ma-Cu


Bohio Atabey Mujeres de la Yukka y el Jaguar-Inaruno Yuka Aroa Guaribono 


Caney Indigenous Spiritual Circle


Intersectional Indigenous Identities: Afro-Indigenous and Black Indigenous Peoples


What it Means to be both Black and Indigenous


Paul Joseph Lopez Oro, “A Love Letter to Indigenous Blackness.” NACLA: Report on the Americas. 53:3 2001, 248-254. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10714839.2021.1961442

Carlisle Indian Industrial School

Carlisle Indian School Digital Resource Center 133 records of children sent from Puerto Rico to Carlisle Indian School after the Spanish American War. http://carlisleindian.dickinson.edu/nation/puerto-rico

Pablo Navarro- Rivera, “Acculturation Under Duress: The Puerto Rican Experience at Carlisle Indian School, 1898-1918.” Centro Journal, 18:1 Spring 2006, 222-259 https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/377/37718113.pdf

Nestor David Pastor, “Kill the Boricua, and Save the Man”  Centro Voices, 30 Oct 2015. https://centropr.hunter.cuny.edu/centrovoices/chronicles/kill-boricua-and-save-man

Catherine S Ramirez, “Indians and Negroes in Spite of Themselves: Puerto Rican Students at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School.” Natalia Molina, Daniel Martinez HoSang & Ramon Gutierrez, Relational Formations of Race: Theory Method and Practice. UC Press, 2019, 166-184. https://catherinesramirez.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/ramirez-indians.pdf

Potential Exploitation

“Major Gold Deposits Discovered in Puerto Rico. “https://waragainstallpuertoricans.com/2016/08/24/major-gold-deposits-discovered-in-puerto-rico/

USGS & University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, “Open-File Report 98-38: Geology, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Mineral Occurrences and Mineral Resource Assessment for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ”https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1998/of98-038/pdf/manuscript.pdf

Decolonization & Human Rights

Laws of Burgos 1512


“Laws of the Indies: Spain and Native Peoples in the New World” Constitutional Rights Foundation https://www.crf-usa.org/bill-of-rights-in-action/bria-15-4-c-laws-of-the-indies-spain-and-the-native-peoples-of-the-new-world

Eve Tuck, K Wayne Yang, “Decolonization is not a metaphor.” Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society 1;1 2012 1-40. https://clas.osu.edu/sites/clas.osu.edu/files/Tuck%20and%20Yang%202012%20Decolonization%20is%20not%20a%20metaphor.pdf

Tapji Garba, Sara-Maria Sorentino, “Slavery is a metaphor: A Critical Commentary of Eve Tuck and K Wayne Yang’s “Decolonization is not a metaphor.” Antipode: A Radical Journal of Geography. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/anti.12615

Dr. Pamela Palmater: Insight and Analysis on Current Issues in Indian Country Education for the Resistance: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTeExnsj_hu87OwPCHcBcjAhttps://pampalmater.com/resources/https://pampalmater.com/publications/

Missing & Murdered Indigenous Women

Julia Stern, “Pipeline of Violence: The Oil Industry and Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women.” Immigration and Human Rights Law Review. 28 May 2021 http://lawblogs.uc.edu/ihrlr/2021/05/28/pipeline-of-violence-the-oil-industry-and-missing-and-murdered-indigenous-women/

Barbara Clabots, “The Darkest Side to Fossil Fuel Extraction” Scientific American Blog, 14 Oct 2019 https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/voices/the-darkest-side-of-fossil-fuel-extraction/

Abaki Beck, “Why Aren’t Fossil Fuel Companies Held Accountable for Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women?” Yes Magazine, 5 Oct 2019 https://www.yesmagazine.org/environment/2019/10/05/native-fossil-fuel-missing-murdered-indigenous-women-mmiwg

Repatriation + Taino Objects

Archaeology Program of the National Park Service. 36 CFR Part 79—Curation of Federally Owned and Administered Archaeological Collection.  Washington, D.D.: Department of the Interior.   https://www.nps.gov/archeology/tools/36cfr79.htm

Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. Ley Núm. 112 de 20 de julio de 1988: Ley para la Protección del Patrimonio Arqueológico. San Juan: Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña   http://www2.pr.gov/ogp/BVirtual/LeyesOrganicas/pdf/112-1988.pdf

Oficina Estatal de Conservación Histórica. (2014). Resumen Arqueológico del Municipio de Ponce. San Juan: Oficina Estatal De Conservación Histórica.  Digital   http://www2.pr.gov/oech/oech/Documents/ActualizacionDatosMunicipales/Municipios/Información%20Arqueológica%20del%20Municipio%20de%20Ponce.pdf

Repatriation, National Museum of the American Indian https://americanindian.si.edu/explore/repatriation

Repatriation, A Step by Step Guide, National Museum of the American Indian, 2020 https://americanindian.si.edu/sites/1/files/pdf/repatriation/NMAI-Repatriation-Guidelines-2020.pdfHow do I…?https://americanindian.si.edu/explore/repatriation/how-do-i

International Repatriation of Native American Cultural Heritage, US Dept of the Interior https://www.doi.gov/intl/-international-repatriation-assistance

DOI Working Group and Points of Contact for International Repatriation of Native American Cultural Heritage https://www.doi.gov/intl/-international-repatriation-assistance/-list-of-contacts

Alex Greenberger, “Austrian Museum Won’t Loan Famed Headdress to Mexico.” ArtNews.com  16 Aug 2021 https://www.artnews.com/art-news/news/aztec-headdress-mexico-weltmuseum-wien-loan-request-denied-1234601661/

Cotton Cemi

“Pueblo Taíno ignorado por el Ministerio de Cultura de la República Dominicana .” Nota de prensa, Lo Ultimo Digital.com,  27 Apr 2021  https://loultimodigital.com/pueblo-taino-ignorado-por-el-ministerio-de-cultura-de-la-republica-dominicana/

Jose Rafael Sosa, “Manera dice zemí de algodón taíno nunca fue robado a República Dominicana.” Acento, 28 Jan 2021https://acento.com.do/cultura/manera-dice-zemi-de-algodon-taino-nunca-fue-robado-a-republica-dominicana-8906924.html

“Manera revela quién lo compró y donó a Italia y pide retornarlo a RD”https://quiosco.com.do/manera-revela-quien-lo-compro-y-dono-a-italia-y-pide-retornarlo-a-rd/400231/

The Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Turin University, Accession No. 1676 https://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/turin-cemi-historyhttps://www.museoantropologia.unito.it/lo-zemi-di-cotone-del-museo-di-antropologia-ed-etnografia-delluniversita-di-torino/

Other Zemis / Cemis

16th century Taino zemi https://vistasgallery.ace.fordham.edu/items/show/1929

Jose Barriero (Taino), Taino zemi of Itiba Cahubaba, AD 1200-1500, Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic. Collected by Henry Hurst. NMAI. Clay. https://americanindian.si.edu/static/exhibitions/infinityofnations/meso-carib/127442.html

Jose Barriero (Taino), Taino zemi of Deminan Caracaracol, AD 1200-1500, Anders, Dominican Republic. Collected by Theodore de Booy. NMAI. Clay. https://americanindian.si.edu/static/exhibitions/infinityofnations/meso-carib/053753.html

Deity Figure (Zemi). 13th-15th Centuries. Dominican Republic. The Michael C. Rockefeller Memorial Collection, Bequest of Nelson A. Rockefeller, 1979. Sandstone. https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/313384

Object analysis & content

Joanna Ostapkowicz & Lee Newsome, “Gods…adorned with the Embroiderer’s Needle”: The Materials, Making and Meaning of a Taino Cotton Reliquary.” Latin American Antiquity,  Sep 2012, 300-326. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259227786_Gods_Adorned_with_the_Embroiderer%27s_Needle_The_Materials_Making_and_Meaning_of_a_Taino_Cotton_Reliquary/figures?lo=1

Joanna Ostapkowicz, Alex Wiedenhoeft, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Erika Ribechini, Samuel Wilson, Fiona Brock & Tom Higham, “Treasures. . .of black wood, brilliantly polished: Five examples of Taíno sculpture from the tenth-sixteenth century Caribbean. “https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236200145_Treasures_of_black_wood_brilliantly_polished_Five_examples_of_Taino_sculpture_from_the_tenth-sixteenth_century_Caribbean/figures?lo=1

Gelenia Trinidad Rivera. La coleccion arqueologica de jacanas estableciendo los hechos. (Ponce) https://www.ingeniosupr.com/vol-42/2018/4/13/la-coleccin-arqueolgica-de-jcanas-estableciendo-los-hechos?fbclid=IwAR2ClQHPxReODwapNIE0Vlr3Z92zYJH9368Uf7CfHQr4qTmflKOW7moWd_g

Of General Interest: History, Continuity, mtDNA

Tainos Arte y Sociedad. Banco Popular Dominicano, 2019 https://issuu.com/popularenlinea/docs/ta_nos_arte_y_sociedad

Antonio Castanha, Adventures in Caribbean Indigeneity Centering on Resistance Survival and Presence. PhD Dissertation, U Hawaii, Manoa. https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/11828

Antonio Castanha, The Myth of Indigenous Caribbean Extinction: Continuity and Reclamation in Boriken (Puerto Rico). Palgrave MacMillan, 2011.

Manuel Cardenas Ruiz, ed. Cronicas Francesas de los Indios Caribes. Centro de Estudios Avanzados, PR, (1981) 2004.

Fray Ramon Pane, An Account of the Antiquities of the Indians. Ed Jose Juan Arrom, Translated by Susan C Griswold, Duke University Press, 1999. 

Hernan Maximillano Venegas Delgado & Carlos Manuel Valdes Davila, La ruta de horror: Prisoneros Indios del noroeste novohispano llevados como esclavosa a La Habana Cuba (finales del siglo xviii a principios del siglo xix). Plaza y Valdes Editores, Madrid, 2019. 

Jose Juan Arrom y la busqueda de nuestras raices. Seleccion y coordination Jorge Ulloa Hung & Julio Corbea Calzado. Fundacion Garcia Arevalo, Santo Domingo, Editorial Oriente, Santiago de Cuba. 2013.

Taino: Pre-Columbian Art and Culture from the Caribbean. El Museo del Barrio, The Monacelli Press, Exhibition catalogue September 25, 1997- March 29, 1998. 

Sebastian Robiou Lamarche, Tainos y Caribes: Las culturas aborigenes antillianas. Editorial Punta y coma, San Juan, PR 2005. Sebastian Robiou Lamarche, Taino & Caribs: The aboriginal cultures of the Antilles

Elsa Gelpi Baiz, Siglo En Blanco: Estudio de la economia azucarera en Puerto Rico, Siglo XVI (1540-1612). Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 2007.
Walter Cardona Bonet, “Los caciques de Mona.” Hereditas: Revista de la Genealogia Puertorriquena, 21:2, 2020 10-26.

Caciques de Puerto Rico http://www.proyectosalonhogar.com/link%20p.r/www.linktopr.com/caciques.html

NAT Hall, Maritime Maroons: “Grand Marronage” from the Danish West Indies . The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Oct., 1985), pp. 476-498. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1919030

Miguel Leon-Portilla, La Filosofia Nahuatl: Estudiada en sus fuentes. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. 2017 http://www.historicas.unam.mx/publicaciones/publicadigital/libros/filosofia/nahuatl.html 

Francisco Moscoso, “El mito de la muerte de Agueybana y de los caciques colaboradores Caguax y don Alonso.” Revista ICP 10:20 2011, 44-59.  https://issuu.com/coleccionpuertorriquena/docs/segunda_serie_n__mero_20

5to Centenario de la Rebelion Taina, 1517-2017 . Symposio organizado por la Fundacion Culturra Educativa en el Centro de Estudios Avanzados de PR y el Caribe, 2011.  https://issuu.com/coleccionpuertorriquena/docs/5to_centenario_de_la_rebelion_taina_icp_2011

Menno L.P. Hoogland, Corinne L. Hofman, “Expansion of the Taino cacicazgos towards the Lesser Antilles.” Journal de la societe des americanistes. doi : https://doi.org/10.3406/jsa.1999.1731 https://www.persee.fr/docAsPDF/jsa_0037-9174_1999_num_85_1_1731.pdf


David Cintron, “The Taino Are Still Alive, Taino Cuan Yahabo: An Example Of The Social Construction Of Race And Ethnicity” (2006). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 997.

Juan Manuel Delgado

Juan Manuel Delgado, Las Monterías del Utuao (un capítulo inédito de la supervivencia indígena)

Amy H. Roberts, “Taino Today Part One: Descendants Challenge Outdated Extinction Theory” January 27, 2021

Natalie Van Hoose, “Ancient DNA retells story of Caribbean’s first people, with a few plot twists”, Florida Museum of Natural History, December 23, 2020

mtDNA Studies

Maria A. Nieves-Colon, William J. Pestle, Austin W. Reynolds, Bastien Llamas, Constanza de la Fuente, Kathleen Fowler, Katherine M. Skerry, Edwin Crespo-Torres, Carlos D. Bustamante and Anne C. Stone, “Ancient DNA Reconstructs the Genetic Legacies of Precontact Puerto Rico Communities.”  Molecular Biology Evolution. 37(3):611–626 doi:10.1093/molbev/msz267 

JC Martinez-Cruzado, 2002. The use of mitochondrial DNA to discover pre-Columbian migrations to the Caribbean: results for Puerto Rico and expectations for the Dominican Republic. J Caribbean Amerind Hist Anthro. 1–11. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-Use-of-Mitochondrial-DNA-to-Discover-Migrations-Cruzado/adf73dd81bf1fd7141619469b78a6ce5d6eb65d7?p2df

JC Martinez-Cruzado, 2010. The history of Amerindian mitochondrial DNA lineages in Puerto Rico. In: Fitzpatrick S, Ross A, editors. Island shores, distant pasts: archaeological and biological approaches to the pre-Columbian settlement of the Caribbean. Gainesville (FL): University Press of Florida. p. 54–80. 

JC Martinez – Cruzado, Toro – Labrador G , Ho – Fung V , Estevez – Montero M , Lobaina-Manzanet A, Padovani-Claudio DA, Sanchez-Cruz H, Ortiz- Bermudez P, Sanchez-Crespo A. 2001. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals substantial Native American Ancestry in Puerto Rico. Human Biology, 73:491–511. 

JC Martinez-Cruzado, Toro-Labrador G, Viera-Vera J, Rivera-Vega MY, Startek J, Latorre-Esteves M, Roman-Colon A, Rivera-Torres R, Navarro-Millan IY, Gomez-Sanchez E, et al. 2005. Reconstructing the population history of Puerto Rico by means of mtDNA phylogeographic analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 128(1):131–155. https://academic.uprm.edu/~jumartin/ajpa-2003-00221.pdf

Hannes Schroeder, Martin Sikora, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Lara M. Cassidy, Pierpaolo Maisano Delser, Marcela Sandoval Velasco, Joshua G. Schraiber, Simon Rasmussen, Julian R. Homburger, María C. Ávila-Arcos, Morten E. Allentoft, J. Víctor Moreno-Mayar, Gabriel Renaud, Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Jason E. Laffoon, Rachel J. A. Hopkins, Thomas F. G. Higham, Robert S. Carr, William C. Schaffer, Jane S. Day, Menno Hoogland, Antonio Salas, Carlos D. Bustamante, Rasmus Nielsen, Daniel G. Bradley, Corinne L. Hofman, and Eske Willerslev. “Origins and Genetic Legacies of the Caribbean Taino.” PNAS March 6, 2018 115 (10) 2341-2346; first published February 20, 2018; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1716839115https://www.pnas.org/content/115/10/2341

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