A Bonilla Family Tree: Context, Resistance & Reading Indigeneity

Barrios of Yauco: Red indicates Barrios where Bonillas were based

My latest blog post, is a Guest Post: A Bonilla Family Tree, is about the reading the larger context of Juan Eusebio Bonilla Salcedo’s life and family. This is one of my prima Teresa Vega’s ancestors, who was lynched in Yauco in 1890. Radiant Roots Boricua Branches is her blog. Appreciate this opportunity to delve into her Boricua branches!

Please read both posts at: Decolonizing My Family Tree: Revisting Juan Eusebio Bonilla Salcedo

A Constant Threat of Erasure: Racial Terror, Civil Rights and Family Histories – Pt. 1: Della McDuffie

Sitting with the Legacy of Jim Crow

Ep 83a: Stories from the National Memorial for Peace & Justice pt. 1

These last eight weeks, Black ProGen Live panelists are researching the genealogies of people who died by lynching. Among the cases  is that of Mrs Della McDuffie, who died almost 66 years to the day on 23 April 1953. Witnesses state that this resulted after being beaten to death with a length of industrial hose by Sheriff Percy Columbus ‘Lummie’ Jenkins and his staff during a raid of the small cafe she owned with her husband William McDuffie in Wilcox County, Alabama.[1]  She died within the hour. The supposed crime was playing music after midnight on the Sabbath.[2]

The Trouble I’ve Seen

The Trouble I’ve Seen is a film produced at Northeastern University that includes interviews on three cold cases, the first, being that of Mrs. Della McDuffie.

In the film, Mrs. McDuffie’s nephew,  JC Varner’s gives an account of the event:

“J.C. VARNER, Nephew: So he walked in and hit her told her get up old lady, go to bed. So she told him she couldn’t get up so he hit her across her arm on her knees, then he hit her on the head. And he shot down by her feet a couple of times, at her feet.

“WILLIAM MCDUFFIE: Doctor seen him striking at one person and another with a hose-like weapon. I saw a number hit with the weapon in Sheriff Jenkins hand.
BOND: But Dr. Robert E. Dixon’s statement reads…
DR. DIXON: I can definitely state that the cause of death was not brought on by any injury to the head, such as a blow.
FIDDIMAN: This case essentially was a cover up and it never went to court.
BOND: A year into the investigation, her husband William was found dead by his 2 grandchildren. WILLIAMS: I found my grandfather and it had appeared that he had been killed by way of drowning. They killed him because of the intensity of this investigation. They tried to get him to change his mind and change his statements like everyone else did. He refused to do that. And they took care of it. “[3]T

The High Cost of Inequality

Sharecropping Family on the Pettway Plantation, Gee’s Bend, AL. Arthur Rothstein, WPA photograph

Wilcox County is one of the poorest counties in the country, beset by  “high unemployment, poor access to education and medical care, substandard housing and high rates of crime.” [1] Despite a population comprised of African Americans in the majority, voter suppression tactics facilitated a continued disenfranchisement. That is not to say there is no strength and beauty in the resilient lives there. The spaces for these ancestors opens as their stories are written back into history.

Location of Wilcox County, AL. Encyclopedia of Alabama.

It’s a largely rural county, with cotton farming shaping its history within the state’s Black Belt. Rather than state or interstate highways, a network of county roads connect the county to  other areas.  You may have heard of Wilcox County, as it’s also home to Gee’s Bend, home of the women’s quilting collective. [3] Its legacy of slavery, sharecropping and tenant farming is a testament to extractive economies that leaves next to nothing for the majority of the population that made its fortunes. That same dynamic bleeds into the present.

Today, Alabama’s Black Belt is home to toxic landfill sites that dot these predominantly African American counties,  continuing the disregard for the descendants of those who tilled that land in cotton cultivation before and after the Civil War. 

RW Harrison, Six Generations of Women, Alabama. LOC.

The Why: Restorative Justice

Beyond the civil rights stolen from Mrs. McDuffie, there is a need to see more than this moment, and so we bring our skills to expand their family trees and tell other stories about those who came before them. I’ll bring together some of what I learned about her ancestors, before turning to contemporary issues involving the threat of erasure.

An issue with lynching is the potential for the carnage to occlude recognition of this violence as not only systemic, but ingrained into a community’s institutions. Is there a recognition that there’s a parallel between this past and the people who were accounted for under Congress’ Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2013? [4]

Is there a recognition of the parallels between now and Reconstruction in the sweeping attempts at voter suppression across several states? Can laws that disproportionately affect those living in poverty help rather than set people up for prison in a system that is the 21st century version of a debt peonage system? How do we heal from this— on a familial, interpersonal, social and institutional levels? With 2.4 million prisoners in the US means a high chance this is part of your family history too. These accounts are part of the process of restorative justice.

 Civil Rights and Restorative Justice Project

One important way to do this work is through newspaper research, seeking coverage that can supply details for the initial steps of genealogical records search. Thankfully, there are the case files by Northeastern University School of Law’s Civil Rights and Restorative Justice Project  led by Professor Margaret Durham.  The video, The Trouble I’ve Seen, includes the law student, Bayliss Fiddiman, who worked on the McDuffie case and family members speaking to their experiences. 

These cases, available on the Northeastern University website, are basically the cold case files that law students research and compile to begin a process of restoration and recognition. Through them, the families are contacted, files requested from Federal and state agencies and a review of the material conducted towards a process of restorative justice.  How this outcome manifests depends on the community’s needs and resources marshaled for address and memorialization. 

Ultimately this recognition serves to confirm and establish the events of racial terror that happened, a counter to the silence and denial that surrounds acts of lynching.  What happened to the McDuffie family happened to almost five thousand people in this country who died at the hands of white lynch mobs. 

The denial of events was buttressed by the denial of civil rights and the ability to vote.  A decade after Mrs. McDuffie’s death in 1953, not a single African American was registered to vote in Wilcox County Alabama, despite being in the majority of the population there. When Civil Rights groups peacefully marched over the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Sheriff Lummie Jenkins was there to turn the marchers back as police attacked with dogs, tear gas and smoke bombs. [5]

An Active Erasure: 1953-2019

“FBI Probe Murder of Ala. Woman.” The New York Age, 25 Jul 1953.

A search on Newspapers .com gives 184 results for Sheriff or PC Lummie Jenkins, yet there are no search results for Mrs. Della McDuffie, the woman he allegedly beat to death in 1953, or her husband, William McDuffie. According to the article’s prominent headline in The New York Age, the FBI was investigating the case.  

Yet the divide that splits into acknowledgement and disregard during those years also has its resonance in the failure to index her name into their database.  Perhaps this is most starkly illustrated by screenshots of the article shown here. 

Search Results: 1 of 2 for “Lummie Jenkins”. The New York Age, 25 Jul 1953. Note the location of names highlighted and a line below.

The results are starkly different when searching for “Della McDuffie”:

Search Results: 0 for “Della McDuffie”. The New York Age, 25 Jul 1953.

In these articles, the Sheriff’s name appears just one line above hers, yet there is not a single search result for Della McDuffie- despite the headline “FBI Probe Murder of Ala. Woman” — which specifically references McDuffie’s murder.  As these two images show, a page search brings up one name, yet not the other.  A year later, her husband was drowned and left lying across the doorway of their home, having refused to change his story about how his wife died from the beating given during the raid.  The indignity is compounded by their death certificates, which read that they died from cerebral hemorrhage. 

How exactly are newspapers indexed? Is this an algorithm, and if so, what are the parameters?

If we have ancestors who suffered injustice, how then, is one supposed to find that information on this site? 

 It seems much like the US itself,  Newspapers.com is in need of revisiting such events and address how they are indexed, especially as we are tasked to find and write our ancestors and families back into history. 

Continued: A Certain Threat of Erasure, Pt 2: Towards a History of the Varner Family

References

  1. Sheriff Jenkins has a long history in Wilcox County, serving as Sheriff from 1939-1971, using racial terror as power. One memory of Jenkins suggests what kind of person he was: “When I ask Lola Pettway, 77, if she remembers Lummie Jenkins, she recoils and shudders. She shares a memory of Sheriff Lummie standing at the edge of a field, watching her family pick cotton. Nancy Pettway, 83, tells me about how, just before she was married, her fiancé shot a dog that had attacked him. Mr. Lummie, she said, came to the Bend, arrested her fiancé, and threw him in jail for killing the dog….he was not an anomaly in the Jim Crow South, where sheriffs were considered more powerful than the American president. ” See Alexandra Marvar’s “The Two Faces of Lummie Jenkins”. Topic Magazinehttps://www.topic.com/the-two-faces-of-lummie-jenkins
  2. “The Trouble I’ve Seen” Campus Perspectives, New York, NY: NBC Universal, 01/22/2013. Accessed Sat May 30 2015 from NBC Learn: https://archives.nbclearn.com/portal/site/k-12/browse/?cuecard=65676 
  3. For a brief history of Wilcox County, see Donna J. Siebenthaler, Auburn University “Wilcox County.”, Encyclopedia of Alabama: http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/article/h-1294 ; Wilcox County Map, http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/article/m-6162
  4. “Public Law 113-242, Dec 14, 2014. The Death in Custody Reporting Act ” https://www.congress.gov/113/plaws/publ242/PLAW-113publ242.pdf  Also see Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_in_Custody_Reporting_Act_of_2013; The Counted. “Killings by US police logged at previous rate under new federal system.” The Guardian, 15 Dec 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/dec/15/us-police-killings-department-of-justice-program
  5. “Gee’s Bend residents also remember Dr. King’s visits in 1965, the rallies in Camden, and the march on Selma’s Edmund Pettus Bridge. They remember marching to Camden as children and teenagers, being blockaded by Lummie and Mayor F. R. Albritton at the town’s edge, being pummeled with tear gas and smoke bombs, getting arrested, reaching the courthouse, kneeling in the street, and refusing to leave. They remember the songs they sang. Some remember what happened to David Colston, what happened to Della McDuffie. Some would rather not remember that time at all.” Marvar, “The Two Faces of Lummie Jenkins.” Topic Magazine, https://www.topic.com/the-two-faces-of-lummie-jenkins

Paul Rucker: Stories from the Trees

This morning I sit with the work of Paul Rucker, who manifests the realities behind terminology, and the coercive, body destroying violence that is a part of the legacy of white supremacy. His strategic use of sound and image in a multi-disciplinary performance reanimates imagery to memorialize the nearly 4800 African Americans lynched between 1882-1968. While people from different ethnicities were also lynched, African Americans were disproportionately targeted.

The video  begins with his electronic score for revealing the rate of prison building in America, to one a day. Lights begin to appear, color coded to time periods in which areas rapidly spread and merge. This is a parasitic system on the body politic, something that continues to suck lifeblood as the system of penalties keeps removing access to education, housing, food out of reach while providing a captive labor force with wages under $2 an hour. This violence is slow moving, constraining millions of people from the ability to define themselves, their families and their lives. It’s enshrined in the 13th Amendment.

Evolution

Yet many are unable to grasp just how high the social cost of imprisonment actually is, and that the US holds over 2.1 million people in prison, a disproportionately black population that continues to grow.

As genealogists & family historians, this growth means that working with records of incarceration will become a requirement as we close towards a present where generations are being shaped more by incarceration and deportation than schools, families and communities. And last week, we saw the plans for indefinite incarceration of brown people escaping violence and seeking asylum, and this weekend, people march against the policy, with over 750 locations across the country. That sinking feeling returns, yet knowing we are witnessing another round of the 1870s and 1890s gives me hope that this country can do better than inspire last century’s racist vision of purity. We have been here before.

There’s a close connection to the economy and the logic of targeting the poor as the reason, rather than the structural inequality of wealth produced in the US . The Great Depression was not caused by Americans living in poverty. That the GDP for Puerto Rico is half that of Mississippi, the poorest state in the country, was not caused by the people of Puerto Rico. Let us turn further back.

For hundreds of years, slavery removed or hampered access to equality for millions of people. Colorism (which is with us in myriad forms) then refined that access further. Both are legacies that need to be grappled with in the building of family trees and the acceptance of DNA results. The legal structures that made those issues possible are still present today, and continue to shape inequality. How to tell those stories differs, and different formats help to convey different facets of experience. I want to share the work of artists who communicate a complex story visually, to provide a visceral understanding for difficult historical and contemporary moments.

Rucker’s work transforms the news of lynching into dangling figures that remind us of the human toll, a legacy that cannot be denied or forgotten. Numbers serve to abstract realities , and when humans are represented by numbers, their lives can sink into definitions that render them unremarkable and disposable. We write against this tide.

“…when humans are represented by numbers, their lives can sink into definitions that render them unremarkable and disposable. We write against this tide.”

This ongoing work of restoring humanity to our ancestors continues. QEPD, May they Rest In Peace, may we realize a long term vision for a world with restorative justice. To seek an end to inequality, racial terror and trauma is the task of every generation, just as it is urgently ours today.

Learn more:

Report on Racial Terror & Lynching:  https://lynchinginamerica.eji.org/report/

Equal Justice Initiative: From Enslavement to Mass Incarceration:

Interview with filmmaker Ava DuVernay on her film, 13th (2016):